Biotechnology And Its Significances
|Biotechnology And Its Significances|
The use of living organisms or of substances obtained from them in the industry is known as biotechnology. It is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials using biological agents to provide goods and services. There are several areas where biotechnology is applied for human welfare. Following are the few important application of biotechnology.
#1. Biotechnology in the field of agriculture: It has been applied for the improvement of agricultural by producing diseases resistant varieties of plants and disease free plants. Using plant tissue culture, rapid vegetative multiplication of the plant materials for agriculture, horticulture and forestry are possible.
#2. Biotechnology in the field of medicine: It is widely used in animal and human health care. It is applied in prevention, diagnosis, and cure of diseases. It is used in the production of antibiotics, vacancies, hormones, interferons and vitamins. This technology helps in diagnosis of infectious diseases and transfer of gene by recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering.
#3. Biotechnology in the field of fermentation: A variety of important organic compound are produced industrially by fermentation properties of microbes. Some organic acids like citric acid, gluconic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid and acetic acid are manufactured by employing fermentation activities of fungi and others of bacteria. The bread industry is dependent on the strain of the yeast. Fermented milk is obtained by growing various types of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp). Alcohol is the most common accessory chemical, next to water, in the laboratory and the chemical industry. The use of yeast in the production of alcohol is one of the most beneficial applications of this technology.
#4. Biotechnology in the field of sewage treatment: The industrial wastes consists of different types of chemical toxin. The disposal of such wastes into streams and river poses great problems for aquatic life and makes the water unsuitable for drinking purposes. Such wastes may be decomposed and purification of water can be achieved by employing microbes which can act on these wastes without being destroyed due to toxic effects of industrial wastes. e.g. Phenolic wastes and dilute formaldehyde containing wastes can be easily rendered harmless by the oxidative ability of different species of Pseudomonas. The yeast Torulopsis utilize can utilize the waste sulfite (sulphite) liquor coming from paper pulp industry.
#5. Biotechnology in the field of energy production: The energy obtained from biological sources is called bio-energy. The main use of bio-energy is made by human beings in the rural areas of developing countries. In rural areas of developing countries, it is a common practice to use animal dung for fuel by generating biogas. The gas produced by anaerobic fermentation of waste biomass (animal dung, twigs, barks, human feces, etc) is called biogas. The anaerobic methanogenic bacteria ferment the biomass to produce methane. Biomass can be used for various purposes in addition to its use for cooking.